Januarius (January) was named after Janus, a sky-god who was ancient
even at the time of Rome's founding. Ovid quoted Janus as saying
"The ancients called me chaos, for a being from of old am I."
After describing the world's creation, he again quoted Janus: "It
was then that I, till that time a mere ball, a shapeless lump, assumed
the face and members of a god." Numa, Rome's second king, honored
Janus by founding a temple for him.
Janus was originally pictured as a four-faced being (see ancient statue
pictured on the right) but by the time January was created he was
usually shown as having two faces and was thought of as the god of
Plutarch said it was Numa who added this month to the Roman calendar.
For additional information about January's entry into the calendar, see