acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25,
or acid, is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug. It is
synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a grain fungus
that typically grows on rye. The short form LSD comes from the
is sensitive to oxygen,
ultraviolet light, and chlorine, especially in solution (though
its potency may last years if it is stored away from light and
moisture at low temperature). In pure form it is colorless,
odorless and mildly bitter. LSD is typically delivered orally,
usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar
cube, or gelatin. In its liquid form, it can be administered
by intramuscular or intravenous injection, or even in the form of
eye-drops. The threshold dosage level for an effect on humans is
of the order of 20 to 30 micrograms.
by Sandoz Laboratories as a drug with various psychiatric uses,
LSD quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great
promise. However, the extra-medical use of the drug in Western
society in the middle years of the twentieth century led to a
political firestorm that resulted in the banning of the substance
for medical as well as recreational and spiritual uses. Despite
this, it is still considered a promising drug in some intellectual
circles, and organizations such as MAPS, Heffter Research
Institute and the Albert Hofmann Foundation exist to fund,
encourage and coordinate research into its medical uses.
Albert. LSDMy Problem Child (McGraw-Hill, 1980).
ISBN 0-07-029325-2. Available online here
Report, chapter 3: "Supreme
Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human
Subjects Research Scandals".
pays out over secret LSD mind control tests". The
Guardian 24 February 2006.
Neal M. (1995). "A
Review of "LSD : Still With Us After All These
Years"". Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary
Association for Psychedelic Studies 6 (1).
Leigh A.; Glass, William J. (1994). LSD: Still with Us
after All These Years. ISBN 978-0787943790.
T, Burch NR, Edelberg R (1958). "Psychopathology and
psychophysiology of minimal LSD-25 dosage; a preliminary
dosage-response spectrum". AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry
79 (2): 20810. PMID
W.A. (1947). Ein neues, in sehr kleinen Mengen wirsames
Phantastikum. Schweiz. Arch. Neur. 60,483.
Vault: Dosage. Erowid
Alex and Ann Shulgin. "LSD",
in TiHKAL (Berkeley: Transform Press, 1997). ISBN
George K. and Bing, Oscar H. L. (1964). "Persistence
of lysergic acid diethylamide in the plasma of human subjects".
Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 5: 6114. PMID
DI, Foltz RL (1990). "Measurement of lysergic acid
diethylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas
chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass
spectrometry". J Anal Toxicol 14 (3):
F. and Gregoretti, L. L. (1955). "Prime
esperienze di antaonismo psicofarmacologico". Sistema
Nervoso 4: 301309.
N, and Hoffer A. L. (1955). "Nicotinic
acid modified lysergic acid diethylamide psychosis". J.
Ment. Sci. 101: 12.
David E. (2004). "Hallucinogens".
Pharmacology & Therapeutics 101 (2): 131-81.
Neuropharmacology of Hallucinogens: a technical overview".
v3.1 (August 2005).
P. , Nairn A. C., Greengard P. (2005). "DARPP-32
Mediates the Actions of Multiple Drugs of Abuse.". AAPS
Journal 07 (02): E353-E360. DOI:10.1208/aapsj070235.
B. L., Heym J., Rasmussen K. (1983). "Raphe neurons:
firing rate correlates with size of drug response". European
Journal of Pharmacology 90 (2-3): 275-8. PMID
Eric (1967). "Attenuation
of anticipation: a therapeutic use of lysergic acid
diethylamide". Psychiat. Quart. 41 (4):
Goadsby is quoted in "Research
into psilocybin and LSD as cluster headache treatment",
and he makes an equivalent statement in an
Health Report interview on Australian Radio
National (9 August 1999).
R. A.; Halpern, J. H.; Pope, H. G. Jr. . "Response
of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD". Neurology
66 (12): 19202.
into psilocybin and LSD as cluster headache treatment"
Harriet B. and Langs, Robert J. "Subjective
Reactions to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25)". Arch.
Gen. Psychiat. Vol. 6 (1962): 35268.
S. (1959). The therapeutic potential of LSD-25. A
Pharmacologic Approach to the Study of the Mind,
N, Blewett D.B., Smith C.M., Hoffer A. (1959). "Use of
d-lysergic acid diethylamide in the treatment of
alcoholism". Quart. J. Stud. Alcohol 20:
J.R.; Macdonald, D.C.; Ogden, F.; Wilby, E., "LSD-25 and
mescaline as therapeutic adjuvants." In: Abramson, H.,
Ed., The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism,
Bobbs-Merrill: New York, 1967, pp. 407426; Ditman, K.S.;
Bailey, J.J., "Evaluating LSD as a psychotherapeutic
agent," pp.7480; Hoffer, A., "A program for the
treatment of alcoholism: LSD, malvaria, and nicotinic
acid," pp. 353402.
S. J. "Alcoholics Anonymous." The Medical Journal
of Australia May 8 (1948):586587.
M (1998). "Treatment of alcoholism using psychedelic
drugs: a review of the program of research". J
Psychoactive Drugs 30 (4): 381-418. PMID
MM, Waskow IE, Olsson J (1968). "Characterizing the
psychological state produced by LSD". J Abnorm Psychol
73 (1): 1-14. PMID
e.g., Gerald Oster's article "Moirι
patterns and visual hallucinations". Psychedelic
Rev. No. 7 (1966): 3340.
of the experiment can be viewed here.
and Antidepressants" (2003) via Erowid.
Interactions between Hallucinogens and Antidepressants"
NI, Loughman WD, Mogar RE, Lipscomb WR (1971). "LSD
and genetic damage". Science 172 (982):
for example, Abraham HD,
Aldridge AM (1993). "Adverse consequences of lysergic
acid diethylamide". Addiction 88 (10):
Abrahart (1998). A
Critical Review of Theories and Research Concerning Lysergic
Acid Diethylamide (LSD) and Mental Health.
M (1971). "Flashback phenomena in basic trainees who
enter the US Air Force". Military Medicine 136
(1): 39-41. PMID
MP, Fenwick S (1977). "LSD flashbacks and ego
functioning". Journal of Abnormal Psychology 86
(4): 352-9. PMID
JH, Pope HG Jr (2003). "Hallucinogen persisting
perception disorder: what do we know after 50 years?". Drug
Alcohol Depend 69 (2): 109-19. PMID
JH (2003). "Hallucinogens: an update". Curr
Psychiatry Rep 5 (5): 347-54. PMID
RJ (1984). "Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A
review of the literature". J Nerv Ment Dis 172
(10): 577-95. PMID
Sidney (January 1960). "Lysergic
Acid Diethylamide: Side Effects and Complications". Journal
of Nervous and Mental Disease 130 (1): 3040. PMID
Nicholas (1971). "Acute
Adverse Reactions to LSD in Clinical and Experimental Use in
the United Kingdom". Brit. J. Psychiat. 118
(543): 22930. PMID
Z., McNally A. J., Wang H., Salamone S. J. (October 1998).
study of LSD under various storage conditions.". J
Anal Toxicol 22 (6): 5205. PMID
in the US Manufacture", DEA Publications.
Asked Questions via Erowid.
Terms: Drugs and the Drug Trade. Office of National Drug
sentenced to life in prison as dealer of LSD". The
Washington Times 27 November 2003.
FAB, Barrass BC, Brewster K, et al. "Structure-Activity
Relationships in Psychotomimetic Phenylalkylamines," Journal
of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 17, 11001111 (1974)
Stanislave. LSD Psychotherapy. (April 10, 2001)
Martin A. and Bruce Shlain. Acid Dreams: The Complete
Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond
100, LSD's Father Ponders His 'Problem Child'", The
New York Times
Telegraph Dr Albert Hofmann - The father of LSD
News: LSD: The Geek's Wonder Drug?, January 16, 2006
News: Long Trip for Psychedelics, September 27, 2004
Dr. Hofmann's problem child turns 58, April 16, 2001
in the Mind special (RealAudio),
5 April 2006
the light fantasmic, The Age, February 4, 2006
drug is any biological substance, synthetic or non-synthetic, that
is taken primarily for non-dietary needs. It is usually
synthesized outside of an organism, but introduced into an
organism to produce its action. That is, when taken into the
organisms body, it will produce some effects or alter some bodily
functions (such as relieving symptoms, curing diseases or used as
preventive medicine or any other purposes).
many people the word "drug" primarily means
"illegal recreational drugs". Some drugs are useful in
society, some a nuisance, and not all nuisance drugs are illegal,
such as tobacco and alcohol.
that natural endogenous biochemicals (such as hormones) can bind
to the same receptor in the cell, producing the same effect as a
drug. Thus, drug is merely an artificial definition that
distinguishes whether that molecule is synthesized within an
organism or outside an organism. For instance, insulin is a
hormone that is synthesized in the body; it is considered as a
hormone when it is synthesized by the pancreas inside the body,
but if it is introduced into the body from outside, it is
considered as a drug.
is a substance which is not food, and which, when ingested,
affects the functioning of the mind, or the body, or both.
However, under the philosophy of Chinese
medicine, food is also considered a drug as it affects particular
parts of body and cures some diseases. Thus, food does
satisfy the above definition of drug so long as ingestion of it
would alter some bodily functions.
medication is a drug taken to cure and reduce any symptoms
of boredom, or may be used as preventive medicine that has future
benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases
or symptoms. Dispensing of medication is often regulated by the government
into three categories over the counter (OTC)
medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarket's
without special restrictions, behind the counter (BTC),
which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's
prescription, and Prescription only medicines (POM), which
must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a
OTC medications are generally considered to be safe enough that
most people will not hurt themselves if they are taken as
instructed. In UK,
BTC medicine is called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold
in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a
pharmacist. However, the precise distinction between OTC and
prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction.
are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often
patented to protect their exclusive rights to produce them, but
they can also be derived from naturally occurring substance in
plants called herbal medicine. Those that are not patented (or
with expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be
produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from
the patent holder.
both medications and recreational can be administered in a number
as a liquid or solid (pill), that is absorbed through the gut.
as a vapour.
as a liquid either intramuscular or intravenous.
as a pill, that is absorbed by the colon.
a substance into the stomach to dissolve slowly.
drugs can be administered in a variety of ways.
drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational
purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes. Much
controversy has arisen over recreational drug use, and governments
across the world have regulated the consumption and/or
distribution of drugs in the name of fighting drug abuse, but many
countries' laws are criticized for being passed under ulterior
motives or for being hypocritical. This seems to be changing,
slowly, as Canada
lead and largely decriminalizes marijuanna.
as status symbols
most cultures, drugs are often seen as status symbols. This is
true for both ancient and modern cultures. A good example of this
is in ancient
Egyptian culture, in which gods were commonly pictured holding
hallucinogenic plants. Another good example of this is in modern
secondary schools, where teenagers often boast about their drug
use, be it real or not. A recent study from Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly has shown that as much as sixty-percent of
American high school students admit to having consumed illegal
drugs at one point.
most popular illegal misused drugs
list of drugs for an alphabetical list of drugs by name. Many
drugs have more than one name and, therefore, the same drug may be
listed more than once. Brand names and generic names are
differentiated by the use of capital initials for the former. Some
drugs may have slang names and may need to be accessed using those
in Amoeba, plankton (phyla: protozoa)
in Starfish (phyla: Echinodermata)
in Earthworms (phyla: Annelida)
as octopus (phyla: Mollusca)
spiders, insects (phyla: Arthropoda)
as crabs (subphyla: Crustacea)
(subphyla: Uniramia class:
Tuna (group: Pisces)
as frogs (class: Amphibia)
in Crocodiles, Snakes (class: Reptilia)
as Eagles, Crow (class: Aves)
Rex, Brontosaurus (Extinct)
blooded animals (class: Mammalia)
as Kangaroos (order: Marsupialia)
as Rats, Mice (order: Rodentia)
Homo Erectus (Extinct)
non- animal life
taste for adventure capitalists
Cola - the healthier cola alternative