QUEEN CLEOPATRA - The last Egyptian Pharaoh

 

 

B.C. 69-30

 

The design of Solar Navigator's figure head is partly inspired by their beautiful Queen, Cleopatra, while drawing modern influences from popular faces of today.

 

"For (as they say) it was not because her [Cleopatra's] beauty in itself was so striking that it stunned the onlooker, but the inescapable impression produced by daily contact with her: the attractiveness in the persuasiveness of her talk, and the character that surrounded her conversation was stimulating. It was a pleasure to hear the sound of her voice, and she tuned her tongue like a many-stringed instrument expertly to whatever language she chose...."

 

 

Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra

 

From Plutarch's Life of Mark Antony

Cleopatra VII was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, which was then the capital of Egypt. Her father was Egypt's pharaoh, Ptolemy XII, nicknamed Auletes or "Flute-Player." Cleopatra's mother was probably Auletes's sister, Cleopatra V Tryphaena. (It was commonplace for members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to marry their siblings.)

 

There was another Cleopatra in the family -- Cleopatra VII's elder sister, Cleopatra VI. Cleopatra VII also had an older sister named Berenice; a younger sister, Arsinoe; and two younger brothers, both called Ptolemy. The family was not truly Egyptian, but Macedonian. They were descended from Ptolemy I, a general of Alexander the Great who became king of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC.

 

When Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne, she was only seventeen. She reigned as Queen Philopator and Pharaoh between 51 and 30 BC, and died at the age of 39.  Cleopatra was Macedonian, but despite her ancestry was Macedonian, she was worshipped as a god.

 

The demise of the Ptolemies power coincided with the rise of the Roman Empire. Having little choice, and seeing city after the other falling into Rome's grip, the Ptolemies decided to ally with the Romans, a pact that lasted for two centuries. During the rule of the later Ptolemies, Rome gained more and more power over Egypt, and was even declared guardian of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII had to pay tribute to the Romans to keep them away from his Kingdom. Upon his death, the fall of the Dynasty seemed even closer.

 

Hence the controversy over Cleopatra's real motives. Was she trying to save her throne, or did she have a more noble cause? Was she protecting her Dynasty, or was she preventing more interference from the Romans in Egypt?

 

As children, Cleopatra and her siblings wittnessed the defeat of their guardian, Pompey, by Julius Caesar in a duel. Meanwhile, Cleopatra and her brother/husband Ptolemy XIII were duelling, albeit silently, over the throne.

In the middle of all this turmoil, Julius Caesar left Rome for Alexandria in 48 BC. During his stay in the Palace, he received the most famous gift in history: an oriental carpet... with a 22 year old Cleopatra wrapped in. She counted on Caesar's support to alienate Ptolemy XIII. With the arrival of Roman reinforcements, and after a few battles in Alexandria, Ptolemy XIII was defeated and killed.

 

In the summer of 47 BC, having married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, Cleopatra and Caesar embarked for a two month on a trip along the Nile, aboard a legendary boat. Together, they visited Dendara, where Cleoptara was being worshipped as Pharaoh, an honor beyond Caesar's reach. They became lovers, and indeed, she bore him a son, Caesarion. In 45 BC, Cleopatra and Caesarion left Alexandria for Rome, where they stayed in a palace built by Caesar in their honor.

 

Bust of Cleopatra

 

Caesar's acts were anything but overlooked by the Romans. In 44 BC, he was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. With his death, Rome split between supporters of Mark Antony and Octavian. Cleopatra was watching in silence, and when Mark Antony seemed to prevail, she supported him and, shortly after, they too became lovers.

 

Mark Antony's alliance with Cleopatra angried Rome even more. The senators called her a sorceress, and accused her of all sorts of evil. The Romans became even more furious as Antony was giving away parts of their Empire - Tarsus, Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and Palestine - one after the other to Cleopatra and her children.

 

It was the boiling point when Octavian declared war on Cleopatra, and off the coast of Greece in the Adriatic Sea they met in one of the most famous battles in history: Actium. The Egyptian defeat was often attributed to the early withdrawal of a coward Cleopatra from the battle scene, although this claim is now discredited by most historians.

 

 

 

 

Cleopatra rediscovered

 

 

 

 

Octavian waited for a year before he claimed Egypt as a Roman province. He arrived in Alexandria and easily defeated Mark Antony outside the city, near present day Camp César. Antony was asked to be taken to Cleopatra. He died in her arms and was burried as a King.

 

Ocatvian entered Alexandria in 30 BC. Cleopatra was captured and taken to him, and the Roman Emperor had no interest in any relation, reconciliation, or even negotiation with the Egyptian Queen. Realizing that her end is close, she decided to put an end to her life. It is not known for sure how she killed herself, but many believe she used an asp as her death instrument.

 

With the death of Cleopatra, a whole era in Egyptian history was closed. Alexandria remained capital of Egypt, but Egypt was now a Roman province. The age of Egyptian Monarchs gave way to the age of Roman Emperors, and Cleopatra's death gave way to the rise of Rome. The Ptolemies were of Macedonian descent, yet they ruled Egypt as Egyptians - as Pharaohs. And, indeed, Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh.

 

 Reviews of Cleopatra Biographies

• Review - Cleopatra of Egypt: From History to Myth, edited by Susan Walker and Peter Higgs
• Review - Pharaoh, by Karen Essex
• Review - Kleopatra, by Karen Essex
• Irene Hahn's Review of Kleopatra
• Irene Hahn's Review of Pharaoh

 From Other Guides

• Cleopatra - Her Life
Resources on the life of Cleopatra, pictures of Cleopatra, and art and books on Cleoptra.
• Plutarch on Cleopatra's charms
• Was Cleopatra as beautiful as they say?
• In the Steps of Caesar

 Elsewhere on the Web

• Cleopatra The Last Pharaoh
• Cleopatra VII
• Roman Empire Map
Map of the empire in 40 B.C. showing client states of which Egypt was one.
• Roman Empire Under the Reign of Augustus Caesar
The Roman Empire in 25 B.C.
• Shakespeare's play "Antony and Cleopatra"

 

 

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Egypt  Indus Valley  Persian Empire  Judea - Israel  Queen Cleopatra of Egypt

 

 

Movies and Documentaries

 

The videos and DVDs listed below are formatted for North American audiences. If you live in the UK, check out British Royalty Videos instead.

 

Cleopatra: Destiny's Queen is a documentary from A&E's Biography series.

 

Cleopatra's World: Alexandria Revealed. This A&E documentary visits the ruins of the city that was the capital of Cleopatra's empire. The world's leading scholars share their insights and discoveries about the legendary queen. The picture that emerges goes far beyond the familiar tales of a temptress.

 

Cleopatra starring Claudette Colbert. Entertaining 1934 movie.

 

Cleopatra. The famous 1963 epic, with Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra and Richard Burton as Mark Antony. Rex Harrison portrays Caesar.

 

Cleopatra. Campy 1999 TV movie starring Leonor Varela as the queen, Timothy Dalton as Caesar, and Billy Zane as Mark Antony.

 

Caesar and Cleopatra stars Vivien Leigh as Cleopatra in a movie adaptation of George Bernard Shaw's play.

 

More Documentaries About Ancient Egypt
Movies & Documentaries About Caesar

 

 

 

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Sculpture in the Ancient Egyptian god style, Ra and Horus. The Solar Lady is a work or art that has been in the making for over 10 years, with Kylie Minogue providing significant inspirational input from her performances.

 

 

 

Cleopatra was the last pharaoh of Egypt.

 

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Ancient Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; Late 69 B.C.E. – August 12, 30 B.C.E.), known to history as Cleopatra, was the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.

She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, a family of Greek origin that ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great's death during the Hellenistic period. The Ptolemies, throughout their dynasty, spoke Greek and refused to speak Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone. By contrast, Cleopatra did learn to speak Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian goddess, Isis.

Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name.

After Caesar's assassination in 44 B.C.E., she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Her unions with her brothers produced no children. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 B.C.E.. She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus.

To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cléopâtre and the film Cleopatra (1963). In most depictions, Cleopatra is portrayed as a great beauty, and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken as proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pensées, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends, evidently speaking ironically because a large nose has symbolized dominance in different periods of history, that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."

 

 

Queen Cleopatra's royal barge, last of the Pharoahs

 

Queen Cleopatra's royal barge, last of the Pharoahs

 

 

 

Egyptian royal barge, sails and oars for propulsion

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pharoah Khufu's royal barge, solar boat for the afterlife

 

Egyptian boat building - Khufu's royal barge - solar boat for the afterlife

 

 

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[1] Abydos boats

[2] Helmsman on a boat in the tomb of Niankh-Pepi and Pepi-ankh

[3] A Funerary Statuette of Hekaemsaf, Chief of the Royal Ships in the Saitic Period by Gun Björkman

History and archaeology of the ship - lecture notes by John Illsley

Ships in Egypt: Pottery with pictures of ships (Naqada Period), Timbers from Tarkhan, Old Kingdom scenes, wooden models ( Site of the  UCL)

Bibliography for preclassical seafaring

A Selection of Model Boats from the tomb of Meketre.

The lighthouse of Alexandria

Desert Boats, Petroglyphs in the Eastern Desert

Abydos Boat

Archaeologists unearth Pharaonic solar barge

The Ships of Antiquity

The Carnegie Boat

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The design of Solar Navigator's figure head is partly inspired by their beautiful Egyptian Queen, Cleopatra.

 

 

LINKS:



 

Ancient Egypt Travel  - Youtube

 

Princess of Ancient Egypt - Youtube

 

 

Ancient Egyptian secrets - Youtube

 

Egypt National Geographic - Youtube

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Mummy, reincarnation of Cleopatra queen of Egypt, a John Storm adventure by Jameson Hunter

 

 

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