AMPHIBIANS

 

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Let the animals enjoy the Earth

 

 

Like birds, reptiles, mammals, and fishes, amphibians are vertebrates that is, creatures with a backbone and an internal skeleton. Amphibians live part of their life in water and part on land. Even those species that lay eggs on land start life in a fluid-filled egg, breathing through gills.

 

 

 

State

State amphibian

Binomial name

Alabama

Red Hills Salamander

Phaeognathus hubrichti

Arizona

Arizona Tree Frog

Hyla eximia

Georgia

Green Tree Frog

Hyla cinerea

Illinois

Eastern Tiger Salamander

Ambystoma tigrinum

Kansas

Barred Tiger Salamander

Ambystoma mavortium

Louisiana

Green Tree Frog

Hyla cinerea

Minnesota

Northern Leopard Frog

Rana catesbeiana

Missouri

North American Bullfrog

Rana catesbeiana

New Hampshire

Red-spotted Newt

Notophthalmus viridescens

New Mexico

New Mexico Spadefoot Toad

Spea multiplicata

Oklahoma

Bullfrog

Rana catesbeiana

South Carolina

Spotted Salamander

Ambystoma maculatum

Tennessee

Tennessee Cave Salamander

Gyrinophilus palleucus

Vermont

Northern Leopard Frog

Rana pipiens

 

 


AMPHIBIANS:

 

Bullfrog*
White's Tree Frog*

 

 

 

Amphibians (class Amphibia) are a group of animals that include all tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs. Amphibians (from Greek amphis "both" and bios "life") generally spend part of their time on land, but they do not have the adaptations to an entirely terrestrial existence found in most other modern tetrapods (amniotes). There are about 5,700 living species of amphibians.

 

 

History of amphibians

 

Amphibians developed with the characteristics of pharyngeal slits/gills, a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and a post-anal tail at different stages of their life. They have persisted since the dawn of tetrapods 390 million years ago in the Devonian period, when they were the first four-legged animals to develop lungs. During the following Carboniferous period they also developed the ability to walk on land to avoid aquatic competition and predation while allowing them to travel from water source to water source. As a group they maintained the status of the dominant animal for nearly 75 million years. 

 

Throughout their history they have ranged in size from the 15 foot long Devonian Ichthyostega, to the slightly smaller 6 foot long Eryops, and down to the tiny 1 centimeter long Psyllophryne didactyla, commonly known as the Brazilian Gold Frog. Amphibians have mastered almost every climate on earth from the hottest deserts to the frozen arctic, and have adapted to climatic change with ease.

  • Solomon Berg Martin, Biology

  • Duellman/Trueb, Biology of Amphibians

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frogs movie trailer

 

 

 

 

 

Classification

 

Traditionally the amphibians are taken to include all tetrapods that are not amniotes. Recent amphibians all belong to a single subgroup of these, called the Lissamphibia. Recently there has been a tendency to restrict the class Amphibia to the Lissamphibia, i.e. to exclude tetrapods that are not more closely related to modern forms than they are to modern reptiles, birds, and mammals.

There are two ancient, extinct, subclasses:

Of the remaining modern subclass Lissamphibia there are three orders:

  • Order Anura (frogs and toads) (in Superorder Salientia): 5,070 species

  • Order Caudata or Urodela (salamanders): 510 species

  • Order Gymnophiona or Apoda (caecilians): 170 species

Authorities disagree on whether Salientia is a Superorder that includes the order Anura, or whether Anura is a sub-order of the order Salientia. In effect Salientia includes all the Anura plus a single Triassic proto-frog species, Triadobatrachus massinoti. Practical considerations seem to favour using the former arrangement now.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frogs on the edge

 

 

 

 

 

Reproduction

 

For the purpose of reproduction all amphibians are bound to water. Several species have adapted to arid and semi-arid environments, but most of them need water to lay their eggs. The larvae breathe with exterior gills. After hatching they start to transform gradually to the adult's appearance. This process is called metamorphosis. Typically, the animals then leave the water and become terrestrial adults, but there are some exceptions to this general way of reproduction.

The most obvious part of the amphibian metamorphosis is the formation of four legs in order to support the body on land. But there are several other changes:

  • The gills are replaced by other respiratory organs, e.g. lungs.

  • The skin changes and develops glands to avoid dehydration

  • The eyes get eyelids and adapt to vision outside the water

  • An eardrum is developed to lock the middle ear

 

 

Select a species to find out more:

 

 

Frogs and Toads

- American Bullfrog
- American Toad
- Barking Treefrog
- Bird-voiced Treefrog
- California Treefrog
- Cane Toad
- Cliff Chirping Frog
- Colorado River Toad
- Columbia Spotted Frog
- Couch's Spadefoot
- Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad
- Eastern Spadefoot
- Foothill Yellow-legged Frog
- Gray Treefrog
- Great Basin Spadefoot
- Great Plains Toad
- Green Frog
- Green Toad
- Green Treefrog
- Greenhouse Frog
- Mountain Yellow-legged Frog
- Northern Cricket Frog
- Northern Leopard Frog
- Oak Toad
- Ornate Chorus Frog
- Pacific Treefrog
- Pine Woods Treefrog
- Plains Spadefoot
- Red-legged Frog
- Red-spotted Toad
- Southern Leopard Frog
- Southern Toad
- Spring Peeper
- Squirrel Treefrog
- Tailed Frog
- Texas Toad
- Western Spadefoot
- Western Toad
- Wood Frog
- Woodhouse's Toad

Salamanders
- Arboreal Salamander
- California Giant Salamander
- California Newt
- California Slender Salamander
- Dunn's Salamander
- Dwarf Waterdog
- Eastern Newt
- Eastern Red-backed Salamander
- Ensatina
- Four-toed Salamander
- Greater Siren
- Green Salamander
- Grotto Salamander
- Hellbender
- Larch Mountain Salamander
- Lesser Siren
- Long-tailed Salamander
- Long-toed Salamander
- Marbled Salamander
- Mole Salamander
- Mount Lyell Salamander
- Mud Salamander
- Mudpuppy
- Northern Dusky Salamander
- Northern Slimy Salamander
- Pygmy Salamander
- Red Salamander
- Red-bellied Newt
- Rough-skinned Newt
- Seal Salamander
- Spotted Salamander
- Spring Salamander
- Tiger Salamander
- Two-toed Amphiuma
- Yonahlossee

 

 

 

 

Iguana facts

 

 

Please use the Index below to navigate the Animal Kingdom:-

 

 

 

AMPHIBIANS  

Such as frogs (class: Amphibia)

ANNELIDS  

As in Earthworms (phyla: Annelida)

ANTHROPOLOGY

Neanderthals, Homo Erectus (Extinct)

ARACHNIDS  

Spiders (class: Arachnida)

BIRDS  

Such as Eagles, Albatross (class: Aves)

CETACEANS 

such as Whales & Dolphins ( order:Cetacea)

CRUSTACEANS  

such as crabs (subphyla: Crustacea)

DINOSAURS

Tyranosaurus Rex, Brontosaurus (Extinct)

ECHINODERMS  

As in Starfish (phyla: Echinodermata)

FISH

Sharks, Tuna (group: Pisces)

HUMANS - MAN

Homo Sapiens  THE BRAIN

INSECTS

Ants, (subphyla: Uniramia class: Insecta)

LIFE ON EARTH

Which includes PLANTS non- animal life

MAMMALS

Warm blooded animals (class: Mammalia)

MARSUPIALS 

Such as Kangaroos (order: Marsupialia)

MOLLUSKS  

Such as octopus (phyla: Mollusca)

PLANTS

Trees -

PRIMATES  

Gorillas, Chimpanzees (order: Primates)

REPTILES

As in Crocodiles, Snakes (class: Reptilia)

RODENTS

such as Rats, Mice (order: Rodentia)

SIMPLE LIFE FORMS

As in Amoeba, plankton (phyla: protozoa)

 

  

 

 

 

 

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