Dictionary definitions: A fantasy (phantasy) is a place existing solely in the imagination (but often mistaken for reality) - or the imagination unrestricted by reality; "a schoolgirl fantasy"





The False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF) was formed in 1992 by Pamela and Peter Freyd, with the support and encouragement of therapists Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager. The Freyds were rapidly joined by a group of professionals with expertise in the area of suggestion, and by thousands of parents who had been accused of child abuse by adult children who had no memory of abuse before entering some form of therapy.


The founders of the FMS Foundation were concerned that the adult offsprings' devastating new beliefs about their childhoods developed because of therapy experiences that almost always included one of the following techniques used to "excavate hidden memories": hypnosis, relaxation exercises, guided imagery, drug-mediated interviews, body memories, literal dream interpretation, and journaling. It is the position of the FMSF that there is no scientific evidence that the use of consciousness-altering techniques such as these can reveal or accurately elaborate factual information about any past experiences, including sexual abuse. 


According to the FMS Foundation, "The controversy is not about whether children are abused. Child abuse is a serious social problem that requires our attention. Neither is the controversy about whether people may not remember past abuse. There are many reasons why people may not remember something: childhood amnesia, physical trauma, drugs or the natural decay of stored information. The controversy is about the accuracy of claims of recovered "repressed" memories of abuse. The consequences profoundly affect the law, the way therapy is practiced, families and people's lives." 


Members of the FMS Foundation Scientific Advisory Board now include a number of members of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine: Aaron T. Beck, M.D., Rochel Gelman, Ph.D., Leila Gleitman, Ph.D., Ernest Hilgard, Ph.D., Philip S. Holzman, Ph.D., Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., Paul McHugh, M.D., and Ulric Neisser, Ph.D. The Scientific Advisory Board includes both clinicians and researchers. The FMS Foundation has no affiliations with any other organizations. It is funded by contributions and has no ties to any commercial ventures.


The Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1996, Addenda defines "false memory syndrome" as "a psychological condition in which a person believes that he or she remembers events that have not actually occurred."





Anti-FMSF websites assert that although cases of false memories exist, the term "syndrome" is misleading and that the FMSF is not a reliable independent source of information about FMS. 


Writing under the pseudonym "Jane Doe", one year before she established the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, Pamela Freyd published a first-person account of her daughter's accusations of sexual misconduct against her husband, Peter Freyd. The publishers of this journal were Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager.


The Freyds' daughter is Jennifer Freyd, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon. She writes,

"For the first two years of my work on betrayal trauma theory, I did not discuss my private life in public. ... In my own case I lost the ability to choose privacy. Approximately eight mongths after I first presented betrayal trauma theory, my parents, in conjunction with Ralph Underwager and others, formed the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF). Before the organization was formed, my mother, Pamela Freyd, had published an article under the name "Jane Doe". The Jane Doe article, when circulated to my professional colleagues and to the media by my mother, made public accusations about my professional and personal life, at the same time that it helped spawn the false memory movement. ... If people who dare to speak about sexual abuse are attacked by those whom they have relied on and trusted, is it any wonder that unawareness and silence are so common?"


Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager were appointed to the FMS Foundation Scientific Advisory Board when it was first created. In an interview with the editor-in-chief of Paidika: : The Journal of Pædophilia, Wakefield is quoted as follows:

"We can't presume to tell [pedophiles] specific behaviors, but in terms of goals, certainly the goal is that the experience be positive, at the very least not negative, for their partner and partner's family. And nurturing. Even if it were a good relationship with the boy, if the boy was not harmed and perhaps even benefited, it it tore the family of the boy apart, that would be negative. It would be nice if someone could get some kind of big research grant to do a longitudinal study of, let's say, a hundred twelve year old boys in relationships with loving paedophiles. Whoever was doing the study would have to follow that at five year intervals for twenty years. This is impossible in the U. S. right now. We're talking a long time in the future." 


In the same interview, Underwager said this:

"Paedophiles need to become more positive and make the claim that paedophilia is an acceptable expression of God's will for love and unity among human beings. This is the only way the question is going to be answered, of whether or not it is possible. Does it happen? Can it be good? That's what we don't know yet, the ways in which paedophiles can conduct themselves in loving ways. That's what you need to talk about. You need to get involved in discourse, and to do so while acting. Matthew 11 talks about the wisdom of God, and the way in which God's wisdom, like ours, can only follow after. Paedophiles need to become more positive and make the claim that paedophiles is an acceptable expression of God's will for love and unity among human beings."


In the storm of controversy that followed this interview, Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager resigned from the FMS Foundation Scientific Advisory Board. Pamela Freyd remains as Executive Director. Peter Freyd is on public record admitting that he was an alcoholic, that he himself was sexually abused as a child, and that he may have said and done things to his daughter that were inappropriate. He emphatically denies sexually abusing her.


The controversy over the motivations and family histories of the founders of the FMS Foundation occurred at the same time as a related but more substantive controversy within the academic and therapeutic communities over the existence of repressed or false memories. 



  1. Freyd, J. (1996) Betrayal Trauma: The Logic of Forgetting Child Abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. The history of the confrontations between the Freyds and their daughter Jennifer is recounted in the Afterword, pages 197-199.

  2. Hart, Anne (1995) "The Great Debate," MindNet Journal, vol. 1, #54.

  3. Royal College of Physicians, 1997, quoted by FMSF.

  4. FMS Foundation website.

  5. Calof, David L. (1993). "A Conversation With Pamela Freyd, Ph.D. Co-Founder And Executive Director, False Memory Syndrome Foundation, Inc., Parts 1 and 2," in Treating Abuse Today, Vol. III, No. 3. Available on the web at TAT.

  6. Astraea Household website.

  7. Doe, Jane (1991), "How could this happen? Coping with a false accusation of incest and rape," Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, vol. 3, 154-165. Available on the web at the ICAA website.

  8. "Paidika Interview: Hollida Wakefield and Ralph Underwager", Paidikia: The Journal of Pædophilia", Winter 1993.

  9. "One family's tragedy spawns national group", The Baltimore Sun, 12 Sept 1994. Available on the web at Skeptic Files



























A CAREER IN MODELING - All of the above are well above average in terms of tone and looks - and bound to get girls drooling after them. In model terms these guys are cooking. So what are the the standards in the fashion (modeling) industry? 


The ideal height for a male model is in between 5′ 11″ and 6′ 2.″ Typically models weigh around 175 pounds. Male modeling can start  from the age of 18-25 and go on to 40, which is a longer career than their female counterparts. Mature male models are also in demand - if they keep in shape.

You must keep your body toned. You don't need to be a body builder – modeling just requires that you are in shape. You should live near a big city which has a name in modeling or the fashion field like: New York, Milan, London, Paris, etc. 

Make up a good portfolio, including head and body shots in business attire, casual wear and in sportswear. Put your information on the back of pictures – like height, weight, clothing and shoe sizes.

Hire an agent who can land you jobs but be very careful about the projects you sign for. Research the legitimacy of any venture and the obligations of any legal contract. You should have your passport ready at all times.



False memory


A false memory is a memory of an event that did not happen or is a distortion of an event that did occur as determined by externally corroborated facts.




It is common experience that human memory may be unreliable to some degree, whether by failing to remember at all or by remembering incorrectly.


Our sense of identity, of who we are and what we have done, is tied to our memories, and it can be disturbing to have those challenged. Amnesia, Alzheimer's disease, and post-traumatic stress disorder (also known as “shell-shock”) provide examples of dramatic loss of memory, with devastating effects on the sufferer and those around them.


Memory is a complicated process, only partly understood; but research suggests that the qualities of a memory do not in and of themselves provide a reliable way to determine accuracy. For example, a vivid and detailed memory may be mistaken, and a vague memory, correct. Likewise, continuity of memory is no guarantee of truth, and disruption of memory is no guarantee of falsity. Finally, memory is believed to be a reconstructed phenomenon, and so it can often be strongly influenced by expectation (one's own or other people's), emotions, the implied beliefs of others, inappropriate interpretation, or desired outcome.





If a person remembers an event that lacks another witness or corroborative physical evidence, the validity of the memory may be questioned—but not dismissed. It might be said that absence of evidence is not evidence of absence, but validation has the highest priority. For instance, one might say that there are scores of secret elephants with wings; as difficult as it may be to disprove such a statement outright, the statement cannot be validated until many such elephants are actually found.


Complications arise when a memory involves trauma inflicted by another. If it is in a reputedly involved third party's interest to deny an incriminating memory, the memory cannot be dismissed merely on the strength of such a denial. Likewise, the memory alone does not warrant an accusation of the third party - hence need for external corroborative evidence.


The origin of false memories is controversial. Hypnosis can be used to form false memories because this technique can lead to fantasizing and can increase the subjective certainty of fantasy. Research suggests that at least some false memories are formed through rehearsal, or repetition, of an event that has been confirmed as fantastic: after repeatedly thinking about and visualizing an event, a person may begin to “remember” it as if it had actually occurred. Upon questioning, such a person might confidently recall the event when in fact it is merely previous visualizations that make it seem familiar. Rehearsal is the strongest mechanism of moving short-term memory into long-term memory. Naturally, the rehearsal of incorrect information leads to the formation of an incorrect long-term memory. This applies to both implanted and real memories. For example, many people have experienced the phenomenon of learning that a childhood memory actually happened to a sibling.


Research suggests that memory involves reconstruction, not just recall. For example, a child remembers daddy standing at the table with an angry expression and wielding a big sharp knife, and shouting at mommy who is screaming and looks scared. The memory may be partly accurate, but in fact the child is half remembering fragments of a Thanksgiving party: daddy was carving the turkey and singing loudly, and mommy's expression is because she is shouting at the dog to lie down. The child may later simply have a fragment of memory that they are guided to interpret and remember "correctly" as "daddy was violent, mommy was always terrified of him".


Many proponents of recovered memories emphasize the importance of distinguishing between ordinary and traumatic memory. Studies show that memories can be implanted, but we lack studies on implanted traumatic memories and their related effects—such as post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder—because such studies would be unethical.



False memory syndrome


False memory syndrome (FMS) is the term for the hypothesis describing a state of mind wherein sufferers have a high number of highly vivid but false memories, often of abusive events during their childhood. This condition has been studied, and sufferers have confessed to “entirely made up stories.” However, the DSM-IV does not recognize FMS, although the forgetting of traumatic events constitutes several of the manual's diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The debate over FMS centers largely around the topic of child abuse, wherein alleged victims are said to experience dissociation, which causes repression of the traumatic memory until later in life, when the memory resurfaces either naturally or with the aid of a professional. Many advocates of FMS argue against both methods of memory recovery, claiming that such professionals as therapists and psychiatrists accidentally implant false memories. Specific therapies considered by some to be pseudoscientific, such as past lives therapies have been explained with reference to false memory syndrome. The term and concept were popularized, though not invented, by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF).


The Courage to Heal is a book that has received much controversy over the years, as some believe it encourages the recovery of repressed memories as a healing technique. Some retractors have blamed the book for encouraging them into memory confabulation.[1]


Ultimately, it is undeniable that true memories are often forgotten. The difficulty comes in deciding whether a memory which has been recovered or spontaneously recollected, is accurate and correctly interpreted, or not.




Men: Okay, it's nice to be appreciated, but don't end up in the cooking pot. Be alert to potentially difficult girls - attention seekers. Those with a crush or more, those dreaming of you when you think they are just making normal conversation; being nice. Fantasies are normal. Dreams (or hopes) that are turned in a false memory are not. Girls from dysfunctional backgrounds are more prone to false memory implantation, to supplement their attention seeking tendencies. Typically, such girls will make up stories for their friends. The stories will vary and build on whatever any of the friends choose to believe could be real. Eventually, the friends and the subject will believe what they have invented between them. In the legal sense, this is called coaching.


Pseudologia fantastica  -  Occasional patients are seen who create a web of fantasies, lies, and untruths around themselves, almost compulsively. Fish (1967) classified this phenomenon as a form of confabulation. This tends to occur in people who are of low IQ or self-esteem, but who do not have known brain disease or frontal lobe dysfunction. RCPSYCH Kopelman Neuropsychiatry



Prominent examples


Sexual abuse


False memory has figured prominently in many investigations and court cases, including cases of alleged sexual abuse. There is no scientific way to prove that any of these recollections are completely accurate.


In the 1980s, day care sexual abuse hysteria based on recovered memories resulted in the imprisonment of some of the accused parents. Most of these convictions were reversed in the 1990s, and there are cases in which recovered-memory therapists have been successfully sued by former clients for implanting false memories. [2]


Many individuals who were led to believe in things that they later were able to show did not happen have retracted allegations of such abuse (for instance, [3]). Known as "retractors" they are sometimes vilified as being "in denial" about the "real abuse they suffered and want to forget about" by advocates of recovered memory therapy (see below), a suggestion which many find offensive.[4]



Alien abduction and reincarnation


Other reputed instances of therapist-implanted false memory involve alien abductions and reincarnation therapy. These cases are cited as proof that certain methods can induce false memories. Psychologist Stephen Jay Lynn conducted a simulated hypnosis experiment in 1994, asking patients to imagine they had seen bright lights and experienced lost time. 91% of subjects who had been primed with questions about UFOs stated that they had interacted with aliens. [5]


Harvard University professor Richard McNally has found that many Americans who believe they have been abducted by aliens share personality traits such as New Age beliefs and episodes of sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnopompic hallucinations. These experiences prompted the individuals to visit therapists, who would frequently suggest alien abduction as a cause. The individuals readily accepted the explanation and in laboratory experiments exhibited stress symptoms similar to those of Vietnam veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.[6] The experiment led McNally to conclude, "Emotion does not prove the veracity of the interpretation."[7]



Satanic ritual abuse


In the United States, in the 1980s, a wave of false allegations erupted as a result of the use of recovered memory techniques in cases of satanic ritual abuse. Hundreds of psychotherapists began teaching that adult stress was a sign that a person was sexually abused by their parents and neighbors. Using putative techniques to "recover" these lost memories, hundreds of people eventually were convinced by their therapists that they were abused by Satanic priests, these Satanists being their own family or kindergarten teachers. Hundreds of people were convicted of these "crimes" and put in jail. From the late 1990s onward a skeptical reappraisal of these recovered memory techniques has shown that these were not recovered memories at all, but rather created memories. Most of the people convicted on such charges have since been freed.



Criticisms of recovered memory therapy


Although there is genuine concern that important memories may be buried and need uncovering, there is concern that the goal of neutral truth may be forgotten, compared to the belief that they must exist and be found, and that lives are therefore devastated by the pressure to find such memories when such events often may not have happened, or may be misinterpreted.


Critics, such as FMS advocates, claim that recovered memory therapists often have a non-neutral interest in proving that such experiences happened, and use techniques similar to those used by cults and interrogators which are known to produce mental confusion such as:

  • keeping information from their clients that could place their recovered memories in doubt

  • assuming by default that repressed memories exist in the client

  • relying upon techniques based upon suggestibility rather than ones which neutrally explore the client's experience

  • mentally isolating people from their previous social support (families and so on)

  • viciously attacking opponents, insinuating that they are practitioners of Satanic ritual abuse or that they endorse the sexual abuse of children


Critics of recovered memory therapy, like Richard Ofshe and Ethan Watters (Making Monsters: False Memories, Psychotherapy, And Sexual Hysteria), view the practice of "recovering" memories as fraudulent and dangerous. They base this assertion on several claims:

  • Traumatic experiences which obviously have happened, such as war time experiences, are not "repressed"—they are either forgotten or remembered clearly in spite of attempts to suppress them.

  • The "memories" recovered in RMT are highly detailed. According to RMT literature, the human brain stores very vivid memories which can be recalled in detail, like a video tape. This belief contradicts virtually all research on the way memories work.

  • The patient is given very extensive lists of "symptoms" including sleeplessness, headaches, the feeling of being different from others etc. If several of these symptoms are found, the therapist suggests to the patient that they were probably sexually abused. If the patient denies this, they are "in denial" and require more extensive therapy. This is a form of Catch-22.

  • During the questioning, patients are openly encouraged to ignore their own feelings and memories and to assume that the abuse has happened. They then explore together with this therapist, over a prolonged period of many months or even years, how the abuse happened. The possibility that the abuse has not happened at all is usually not considered.


According to these critics, RMT techniques used for "reincarnation therapy" or "alien abduction therapy" are comparable to the techniques used in Satanic ritual abuse therapy. To verify the false memory hypothesis, researchers like Elizabeth Loftus have successfully produced false memories of various childhood incidents in test subjects. This is viewed as further evidence that comprehensive false memories can be produced in therapy. The false memories in these studies, however, are ordinary memory (like convincing people they were lost in a mall as a child) and not traumatic memories. It would be highly unethical to subject people to traumatic experiences for experimental purposes when studying traumatic memory.







Simon Hall

David Watkins

Katie Davis

Leon Benjamin Forde

Warren Blackwell

Darryl Gee


F.A.C.T. (Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers)

PO Box 3074
Cardiff CF3 3WZ
Tel: 029 2077 7499
Campaigning organisation and support group which provides help and advice to falsely accused and wrongly convicted carers and teachers throughout the UK. The website contains a range of information, leaflets, books and links.


Guidance for education staff and volunteers in schools

This website has guidance on: 1) staff facing an allegation of abuse; 2) preventing 'abuse of trust' for education staff; and 3) the conduct of education staff working with young people.












"Research has shown that over time memory for events can be changed or reinterpreted in such a way as to make the memory more consistent with the person's present knowledge and/or expectations."


American Psychological Association, 1995.



"Memories also can be significantly influenced by a trusted person."


American Psychiatric Association, 1994.



"The AMA considers recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse to be of uncertain authenticity, which should be subject to external verification."


American Medical Association, 1994.






"It is not known how to distinguish, with complete accuracy, memories based on true events from those derived from other sources."


American Psychiatric Association, Statement on Memories of Sexual Abuse, 1993.

"The AMA considers recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse to be of uncertain authenticity, which should be subject to external verification."


American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs, Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse, 1994.


"The available scientific and clinical evidence does not allow accurate, inaccurate, and fabricated memories to be distinguished in the absence of independent corroboration."


Australian Psychological Society, Guidelines Relating to the Reporting of Recovered Memories, 1994.


"At present there are no scientifically valid criteria that would generally permit the reliable differentiation of true recovered memories of sexual abuse from pseudomemories."


Michigan Psychological Association, Recovered Memories of Sexual Abuse: MPA Position Paper, 1995.


"At this point it is impossible, without other corroborative evidence, to distinguish a true memory from a false one."


American Psychological Association, Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse, 1995.


"Psychologists acknowledge that a definite conclusion that a memory is based on objective reality is not possible unless there is incontrovertible corroborating evidence."


Canadian Psychological Association, Position Statement on Adult Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse, 1996.






"The Council finds that recollections obtained during hypnosis can involve confabulations and pseudomemories and not only fail to be more accurate, but actually appear to be less reliable than nonhypnotic recall."


American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs, Scientific Status of Refreshing Recollections by the Use of Hypnosis, 1985.


"Psychiatrists are advised to avoid engaging in any 'memory recovery techniques' which are based upon the expectation of past sexual abuse of which the patient has no memory. Such 'memory recovery techniques' may include drug-mediated interviews, hypnosis, regression therapies, guided imagery, 'body memories,' literal dream interpretation and journaling. There is no evidence that the use of consciousness-altering techniques, such as drug-mediated interviews or hypnosis, can reveal or accurately elaborate factual information about any past experiences including childhood sexual abuse. Techniques on regression therapy including 'age regression' and hypnotic regression are of unproved effectiveness."


Royal College of Psychiatrists, Reported Recovered Memories of Child Sexual Abuse, 1997. (UK)









"The use of recovered memories is fraught with problems of potential misapplication."

American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs, Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse, 1994.









Have you made false allegations of abuse which has resulted in somebody going to court and being convicted?

If so, or if you now believe that to be so, please help an innocent person get out of prison and to clear his/her name.  It is never too late and there is every chance that your "victim" will forgive you.  It does happen

Has anyone ever tried to get you to make a false accusation? You can now right this terrible wrong.  This is not always the fault of the person who has made the false allegations.  Sometimes this is done out of fear, or there could many reasons for feeling pushed into making accusations


You can email and speak to a lay legal advisor, who will assist you in a sympathetic and understanding manner.


It is not about trying to apportion blame, or looking for someone to vilify. This opportunity is about allowing you to help those people who have suffered the indignation of being falsely accused to understand how and why it has happened to them. Many will have lost their homes, businesses and families, let alone their freedom.  Please help them to regain their self respect.


Remember, you to could be a victim of false accusations one day, especially if it has led to the break up of your family/friends/social circle, and where you have been co-erced to make such an accusation. This may not have been your fault.  You might have felt pushed into it.  You are not alone in this, and you must never feel that way









Sexual harassment is common at every stage of education.  Verbal and physical harassment begins in elementary school, and 4 out of 5 children experience some form of sexual harassment or bullying.  Eight out of 10 will experience this at some point in their school lives, and roughly 25 percent will experience this often.  Boys are more likely to physically harass and bully others, or to be physically bullied themselves.  Girls are more likely to use, and experience, verbal and psychological harassment and bullying.  Six out of 10 students will experience some form of physical sexual harassment.  In the Report Card on Gender Equity, the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education (NCWGE) reported that 30 percent of undergraduate students, and 40 percent of graduate students, have been sexually harassed.  

Certainly much of the sexually harassing behavior is student-on-student.  In the Report Card, the NCWGE reported that, of students who have been sexually harassed, 90 were harassed by other students.  And in their 2006 report on sexual harassment in higher education, the American Association of University Women, (AAUW) reported that 80% of students sexually harassed were targeted by other students.    

However, sexual harassment by teachers and professors does occur, and this can have serious, sometimes devastating, consequences for the recipient.  Indeed, this type of sexual harassment can have the most serious consequences of all because Education is one of  the few arenas where victims (students) have absolutely no power, and no advocates. 


Approximately 15% of students will be sexually abused by a member of the school staff during their school career.  In a survey of high school graduates, 17.7% of males and 82.2% of females reported sexual harassment by faculty or staff during their school careers.  Approximately 14% of those surveyed said they had engaged in sexual intercourse with a teacher.  In a survey conducted by the AAUW in 2000, it was reported that roughly 290,000 students had been targeted for physical sexual abuse by school employees between 1991 and 2000. If that is true, we'd better build bigger prisons.


Equally, where underage students engage in sexual activity, that too is illegal - and yes, those bigger prisons will need to be even bigger, except that police officials will also waive prosecution for sexual favours! Usually, only prosecuting the male, with the female giving evidence - and of course the favour. It matters not what sex the arresting officer is, male or female, because lesbians are just an amenable to favours for favours. Fortunately, any sexual activity that involves penetration is easily detectable one way or the other, if you know where to look. the point here is that this information had not been available in the UK until March 2008, and even now research is necessary to give innocent men (men more than women where penetration is alleged) a chance to defend themselves. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 (UK) reversed the burden of proof, which is now on the defendant to prove his innocence - or otherwise show reasonable doubt. That of course means that a defendant walks into court guilty. The Crown do not have to prove guilt, simply rely on the unsupported evidence of the accuser. It's a modern day witch trial.




Where penetration is alleged, this book is a guide to studies which prove that where penetration has taken place, there will be visible and measurable difference between a girl who may have been abused and a virgin. Obviously, if the girl is playing with herself, there is no proof either way. However, if the girl is tightly closed (hymen) then we are looking at virginity and no penetration = allegation disproved. Scientific records and regular monitoring of single parent or other dysfunctional families (in particular) is one possible way to reduce false allegations - at the same time preventing abuse and catching those who are abusing children.

Reports of Sexual Harassment in Education

Similar to sexual harassment in the workplace, most students who experience sexual harassment do not report what is happening.  In a recent survey by the American Association of University Women (AAUW),   In it was found that only 7% of students say they reported sexual harassment to a faculty member or other college employee.  Almost no one spoke with a college employee who they knew was a Title IX officer. Thirty-five percent told no one, not even a friend.  

Sexual harassment by teachers

The causes of sexual harassment and exploitation by teachers and professors can be complex. Relationships between students and teachers are often quite intimate and intense, particularly in higher education where so many students work closely with their professors.  Students share common passions and interests with their teachers, and are dependant on their teachers' approval for academic success, opportunities, and career success.  They will talk to their teachers about personal issues, such as problems at home, or with boyfriends/girlfriends.


Teachers often relish the admiration they receive from their students, and they can grow accustomed to the power they have in the relationship.  Such closeness can blur the professional boundaries and lead people - both school employee and student alike - to step over the line.   

Academic environments are also workplaces, and the same patterns can apply.  Like workplace harassment, politics can be a catalyst for sexual exploitation and sexual harassment. Consequently, problems caused by poor management, workplace bullying, frustration, job/financial insecurity, etc., can create hostile environments that leak over into the student-teacher relationship.  Personal problems can be a factor, and sexual harassment and exploitation of students can be symptoms of the effects of life traumas such as divorce, or death of a spouse or child.  Academic departments for fields that have traditionally excluded women can show a higher rate of sexual harassment of female students and faculty.   Moreover,  sexist or sexualized environments (environments were profanity, sexualized graffiti, viewing Internet porn, sexual jokes, etc., are common) will show some of the highest incidents of sexual harassment.  

The dynamics of sexual harassment often involve an aggressor who holds a position of power over the victim, and this is especially intense in a student-teacher relationship.  Relying on the teacher as a model of right and wrong, a student may doubt their own reaction to the situation. Like peer harassment, most complaints about teachers' behavior tend to center around what is felt to be inappropriate talk in a class or discussion, such as using sexist or sexual references to make a point.


However, some teachers will ask for sexual favors in exchange for grades or academic opportunities, or will downgrade a student who is not "attentive enough" to the teacher - both are examples of quid pro quo harassment (see below).  

Others have used the pretense of an academic advisory session, or one-on-one instruction, to take advantage of a student behind closed doors.  Indeed, a teacher may use the guise of professional concern or interest to mask  that they are actually stalking a student and/or planning a seduction.  

Some teachers believe that students learn more efficiently in a "sexually charged atmosphere," and may even go so far as to argue it is the teacher's responsibility to "guide students to maturity" even in their sexuality and sexual experiences.


Regarding his calculated and serial seduction of his female undergraduate students, one university professor proclaimed he felt it his duty, rationalizing, "They hang on to their virginity too long."






The Royal College of Psychiatrists Report on Recovered Memories - Extracts

Twelve Myths about False Memories

Position Statements and Guidelines from Professional Bodies across the world





What is False Memory Syndrome (FMS)?
What is the problem?
What are the characteristics of FMS?
What is the FMS Foundation?
How is the Foundation financed?
How did the Foundation start?
Who contacts the Foundation and why?
What has the Foundation accomplished?
Does the Foundation speak out against child abuse?
What therapy practices cause concern?
Who is affected by FMS?
Will I be sued? Can I sue?
What is a flashback?
What are body memories?
Is an eating disorder a sign of sexual abuse?
Can a checklist of symptoms tell if sexual abuse occurred?
Are traumatic memories more accurate?
Is there evidence supporting the collection of beliefs about repression?
How do I know if my memories are true?
Why would someone remember something so horrible if it didn't really happen?
What about satanic ritual abuse and alien abduction?
Has the Foundation received calls about MPD?
What does the Foundation know about retractors and retractions?
How do I reach my child?
What is good therapy?
Is false memory syndrome the same for young children?
What can I read to learn more about FMS?
What can we learn from history?
What are benefits of contributing to the Foundation?
What articles are available through FMSF?







F.A.C.T. (Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers)
PO Box 3074
Cardiff CF3 3WZ
Tel: 029 2077 7499
Campaigning organisation and support group which provides help and advice to falsely accused and wrongly convicted carers and teachers throughout the UK. The website contains a range of information, leaflets, books and links.


Guidance for education staff and volunteers in schools
This website has guidance on: 1) staff facing an allegation of abuse; 2) preventing 'abuse of trust' for education staff; and 3) the conduct of education staff working with young people.









"Single Parents" (accessed October 9, 2006)

(2005). "Single parenting" (accessed October 9, 2006)

Bankston, Carl L. and Caldas, Stephen J., Family Structure, Schoolmates, and Racial Inequalities in School Achievement, Journal of Marriage and the Family 60:3 (1998), 715-723.

Dependent Children: 1 in 4 in lone-parent families," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005) . Accessed at: on July 17, 2006.

Geographic Distribution: London has most lone-parent families," National Statistics Online, National Statistics, United Kingdom (July 7, 2005). Accessed at: on July 17, 2006.

Hilton, J., Desrochers, S.,Devall, E. Comparison of Role Demands, Relationships, and Child Functioning is Single-Mother, Single-Father, and Intact Families. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage ,35(?) 29-56.

Mulkey, L.; Crain, R; Harrington, A.M. One-Parent Households and Achievement: Economic and Behavioral Explanations of a Small Effect. Sociology of Education, 1992, 65, 1, Jan, 48-65

Pong, Suet-ling The School Compositional Effect of Single Parenthood on 10th Grade Achievement, Sociology of Education 71:1 (1998), 23-42.

Quinlan, Robert J. Father absence, parental care, and female reproductive development. Evolution and Human Behavior, Volume 24, Issue 6, November 2003, Pages 376-390

Richards, Leslie N.; Schmiege, Cynthia J. Family Relations, Vol. 42, No. 3, Family Diversity. (Jul., 1993), pp. 277-285.

Risman, Barbara J., and Park, Kyung. (1988). Just The Two of Us: Parent-Child Relationships in Single-Parent Homes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1988, 50, 4, Nov, 1049.

Sacks, G. (September 4, 2005) “Boys without fathers is not a logical new idea.” Arkansas Democrat-Gazette (Little Rock, Arkansas)

States News Service. (2005 July 20). “America’s Children: Family Structure and Children’s Well-Being

*Quotes taken from Neale B and Wade A (2000) 'Parent problems! Children's views on life when parents split up', Young Voice/Nuffield.

How to become a good male model
Clubs male models
Fit male models 2011





Registered charity no: 230750







Male models should keep in trim and provide photographs to their agents dressed suited and casual. It is not essential to body build, but keeping in shape is a must.





Some of the views expressed on this website are those of individual contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of SN. All content is for general information only and is not intended to replace professional advice of any kind. SN is not responsible or liable for any actions taken by a user of this site. SN is not liable for the contents of any external sites listed, nor does it endorse any advice, products or services mentioned on these sites.






Aftab Ahmed











Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Child Abuse

Children - Adoption


David Watkins









Dysfunctional Families



Fantasies - Schoolgirl









IVF Artificial Fertilisation


Justice - DPP










Munchausen's Syndrome


OCD Compulsive Obsessive


Personality - Disorders





Sex Education


Single Parents







Teachers - Petition

Teenage Pregnancy









As in Amoeba, plankton (phyla: protozoa)


As in Starfish (phyla: Echinodermata)


As in Earthworms (phyla: Annelida)


Such as octopus (phyla: Mollusca)


Crabs, spiders, insects (phyla: Arthropoda)


such as crabs (subphyla: Crustacea)


Spiders (class: Arachnida)


Ants (subphyla: Uniramia class: Insecta)


Sharks, Tuna (group: Pisces)


Such as frogs (class: Amphibia)


As in Crocodiles, Snakes (class: Reptilia)


Such as Eagles, Crow (class: Aves)


Tyranosaurus Rex, Brontosaurus (Extinct)


Warm blooded animals (class: Mammalia)


Such as Kangaroos (order: Marsupialia)


Gorillas, Chimpanzees (order: Primates)


such as Rats, Mice (order: Rodentia)


such as Whales & Dolphins ( order:Cetacea)


Neanderthals, Homo Erectus (Extinct)


Homo Sapiens  THE BRAIN


Which includes PLANTS non- animal life







This website is Copyright © 1999 & 2013.   The bird logo and name Solar Navigator are trademarks. All rights reserved.  All other trademarks are hereby acknowledged.       Max Energy Limited is an educational charity.