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The geography of Canada is vast and diverse. Occupying most of the northern portion (precisely 41%) of the continent of North America, Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia.


Canada spans an immense territory between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east (hence the country's motto), with the United States to the south (contiguous United States) and northwest (Alaska), and the Arctic Ocean to the north; Greenland is to the northeast. Off the southern coast of Newfoundland lies Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas community of France. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole; however, this claim is not universally recognized.




Map of Canada



Topographic map of Canada



Covering 9,984,670 km² or 3,855,103 square miles (Land: 9,093,507 km² or 3,511,023 mi²; Water: 891,163 km² or 344,080 mi²), Canada is slightly less than three-fifths as large as Russia, less than 1.3 times larger than Australia, slightly smaller than Europe, and more than 40.9 times larger than the UK. In total area, Canada is slightly larger than both in turn the US and China; however, Canada is somewhat smaller than both in land area (China is 9,596,960 km² / 3,705,407 mi² and the US is 9,161,923 km² / 3,537,438 mi²), ranking fourth.


The northernmost settlement in Canada (and in the world) is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (just north of Alert, Nunavut) on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – just 834 kilometres (518 mi) from the North Pole.


The magnetic North Pole lies within the Canadian Arctic territorial claim; however, recent measurements indicate it is moving towards Siberia.



Physical geography


Encompassed by the extreme points of Canada, it covers 9,984,670 km² (3,855,103 sq. mi) and a panoply of various geoclimatic regions. Canada also encompasses vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 202,080 kilometres (125,567)



Appalachian Mountains



The Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama in the southern United States through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. It also runs through parts of southern Quebec.


The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Notre-Dame and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. Notable mountains in the Appalachians include Mount Jacques-Cartier (Quebec, 1,268 m / 4,160 ft) and Mount Carleton (New Brunswick, 817 m / 2,680 ft). Parts of the Appalachians are home to a rich endemic flora and fauna, and are considered to have been nunataks during the last glaciation era.




The Canadian rocky mountains and lakes




Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands


The southern parts of Quebec and Ontario, in the section of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence basin (often called St. Lawrence Lowlands), is another particularly rich sedimentary plain. Prior to its colonization and heavy urban sprawl of the 20th century, this area was home to large mixed forests covering a mostly flat area of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Canadian Shield Most of this forest has nowadays been cut down through agriculture and logging operations, but the remaining forests are for the most part heavily protected.


While the relief of these lowlands is particularly flat and regular, a group of batholites known as the Monteregian Hills are spread along a mostly regular line across the area. The most notable are Montreal's Mount Royal and Mont Saint-Hilaire. These hills are known for a great richness in rare minerals.



Canadian Shield



The northern parts of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, as well as most of Labrador, the mainland portion of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, are located on a vast rock base known as the Canadian Shield. The Shield mostly consists of eroded hilly terrain and contains many important rivers used for hydroelectric production, particularly in northern Quebec and Ontario. The shield also encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson's Bay lowlands. Some particular regions of the Shield are referred as mountain ranges. They include the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains.


The Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes, particularly in the southern regions. Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.



Canadian Interior Plains


The Canadian prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba, as well as much of the region between the Rocky Mountains and the Great Slave and Great Bear lakes in Northwest Territories. The prairies generally describes the expanses of (largely flat) arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and Alberta Badlands are quite hilly.



Canadian pacific railway, Yoho national park



CPR train climbs through Yoho National Park towards Kicking Horse Pass




Western Cordillera


The Canadian cordillera, part of the American cordillera, stretches from the Rocky Mountains in the east to the Pacific Ocean.


The Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second and third largest rivers respectively to drain to the west coast of North America. Immediately west of the mountains is a large interior plateau encompassing the Chilcotin and Cariboo regions in central BC (the Fraser Plateau) and the Nechako Plateau further North. The Peace River Valley in northeastern British Columbia is Canada's most northerly agricultural region, although it is part of the prairies. The dry, temperate climate of the Okanagan Valley in South central BC provides ideal conditions for fruit growing and a flourishing wine industry. The southern Okanagan contains Canada's only desert. This arid grassland is a continuation of the intermontane desert which extends from Mexico north through the U.S. and ends just north of Osoyoos BC. Between the plateau and the coast is a second mountain range, the Coast Mountains.


West of Ontario, the broad, flat Canadian Prairies spread toward the Rocky Mountains, which separate them from British Columbia.


On the south coast Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the continuous Juan de Fuca, Georgia, and Johnstone Straits. Those straits include a large number of islands, notably the Gulf Islands. North, near the Alaskan border, the Queen Charlotte Islands lie across Hecate Strait from the Bella Coola region. Other than in the plateau regions of the interior and the river valleys, most of British Columbia is coniferous forest.




Canada lake medicine




Canadian Arctic


While the largest part of the Canadian Arctic is composed of seemingly non-stop permanent ice and tundra north of the tree line, it encompasses geological regions of varying types: the Innuitian Region (with the British Empire Range and the United States Range on Ellesmere Island) contains the northernmost mountain system in the world. The Arctic lowlands and Hudson Bay lowlands comprise a substantial part of the geographic region often designated as the Canadian Shield (in contrast to the sole geologic area). The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible.


The Arctic, when defined as everything north of the tree line, covers most of Nunavut, and the northernmost parts of Northwest Territories, Yukon, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador.





Canada holds vast reserves of water: 7% of the world's fresh water, a quarter of humid lands and the third largest amount of glaciers (after Antarctica and Greenland). Due to extensive glaciation, Canada hosts more than two million lakes: of those that entirely within Canada, more than 31,000 are between 3 and 100 square kilometres (1.2 & 38.6 mi²) in area, while 563 are larger than 100 km2.


There are 5 main watersheds in Canada: The Arctic watershed, the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Hudson watershed and, due to parts of the Milk River running through Alberta, the Gulf of Mexico watershed.


The Atlantic watershed is mostly drained by the economically important St. Lawrence River and its tributaries, notably the Saguenay, Manicouagan and Outaouais rivers. It drains the entirety of the Atlantic provinces (parts of the Quebec-Labrador boundary are fixed at the Atlantic continental divide), most of inhabitated Quebec and large parts of southern Ontario. The Great Lakes, Lake Nipigon, Churchill River, and St. John River are other important elements of the Atlantic watershed in Canada.





Political map of Canada




The Hudson Bay watershed drains over a third of Canada. It covers northern Ontario and Quebec, Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan and southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. This basin is most important in fighting drought in the prairies and producing hydroelectricity, especially in Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec. Major elements of this watershed include Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River, the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Assiniboine River and Lake Netiling, on Baffin Island.


The Continental Divide, in the Rockies, separates the Pacific watershed, in British Columbia and Yukon, from the Arctic and Hudson Bay watersheds. This watershed is important for irrigating the rich cultures of inner British Columbia (such as the Okanagan and Kootenay valleys) and producing hydroelectricity. Major elements are the Yukon, Columbia and Fraser River.


Northern parts of Alberta, Manitoba and British Columbia, most of Northwest Territories and Nunavut as well as parts of Yukon are drained by the Arctic watershed. This watershed has been little used for hydroelectricity, with the exception of the Mackenzie River, the longest river of Canada. The Peace, Athabasca River, Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (respectively the largest and second largest lakes wholly enclosed by Canada) are significant elements of the Arctic watershed. Each of these elements eventually merges with the Mackenzie so that it thereby drains the vast majority of the Arctic watershed.



Human geography


Canada is divided into thirteen provinces and territories. According to Statistics Canada, 72.0% of the population is concentrated within 150 kilometres (95 mi) of the nation's southern border with the United States, 70.0% live south of the 49th parallel, and over 60% of the population lives along the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River between Windsor, Ontario and Quebec City. This leaves the vast majority of Canada's territory as sparsely populated wilderness; Canada's population density is 3.5 people/km² (9.1/mi²), among the lowest in the world. Despite this, 79.7% of Canada's population resides in urban areas, where population densities are increasing.


Canada shares the world's longest undefended border with the US at 8,893 kilometres (5,526 mi); 2,477 kilometres (1,539 mi) are with Alaska. The Danish island dependency of Greenland lies to Canada's northeast, separated from the Canadian Arctic islands by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. The French islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon lie off the southern coast of Newfoundland in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and have a maritime territorial enclave within Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone.


Canada's geographic proximity to the United States has historically bound the two countries together in the political world as well. Canada's position between the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the US was strategically important during the Cold War as the route over the North Pole and Canada was the fastest route by air between the two countries and the most direct route for intercontinental ballistic missiles. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been growing speculation that Canada's Arctic maritime claims may become increasingly important if global warming melts the ice enough to open the Northwest Passage.


Similarly, the disputed – and tiny – Hans Island (with Denmark), in the Nares Strait between Ellesmere Island and northern Greenland, may be a flashpoint for challenges to overall claims of Canadian sovereignty in The North.


Similar to the more famous American Four Corners, Canada has a point common to two provinces and two territories, near Kasba Lake.



Natural resources


Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the Economy of Canada. Major resource-based industries are Fisheries, Forestry, Agriculture, Petroleum products and Mining.



British Columbian forests



British Columbia's forests are often held up as examples of responsible logging




The fisheries industry has historically been one of Canada's strongest. Unmatched cod stocks on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland launched this industry in the 16th Century. Today these stocks are nearly depleted and their conservation has become a preoccupation of the Maritime provinces. On the West Coast, tuna stocks are now restricted. The less depleted (but still greatly diminished) salmon population continues to drive a strong fisheries industry. Canada claims 12 nautical miles (22 km) of territorial sea, a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles (44 km), an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km) and a continental shelf of 200 nautical miles (370 km) or to the edge of the continental margin.


Forestry has long been a major industry in Canada. Forest products contribute one fifth of the nation's exports. The provinces with the largest forestry industries are British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 54% of Canada's land area is covered in forest. The boreal forests account for four fifths of Canada's forestland.


Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. Three per cent of Canada's land area is covered by permanent pastures. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi²) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). Agricultural regions in Canada include the Canadian prairies, the Lower Mainland and interior plateau of British Columbia, the St. Lawrence Basin and the Canadian Maritimes. Main crops in Canada include flax, oats, wheat, maize, barley, sugar beets and rye in the prairies; flax and maize in Western Ontario; Oats and potatoes in the Maritimes. 


Fruit and vegetables are grown primarily in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Southwestern Ontario, the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, along the south coast of Georgian Bay and in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys of BC. Cattle, sheep and Hogs are raised on the prairies, Cattle and Hogs in Western Ontario, Sheep and Hogs in Quebec, and sheep in the Maritimes. There are significant Dairy regions in Central Nova Scotia, Southern New Brunswick, the St. Lawrence Valley, Northeastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, the Red River valley of Manitoba and the valleys of eastern British Columbia, on Vancouver Island and the Lower mainland.




Alberta mining tar sands



Suncor Energy's tar sands operations in Alberta





Fossil Fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada. While Canada's crude oil deposits are fewer, technological developments in recent decades have opened up oil production in Alberta's Tar Sands to the point where Canada now has some of the largest reserves of oil in the world. In other forms, Canadian industry has long exploited large coal and natural gas reserves.


Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the arctic, making Canada one of the world's largest producers. Canada's many rivers have afforded extensive development of hydroelectric power. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy.



Natural hazards


Continuous permafrost in the north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow



Current environmental issues


Air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities.



Extreme points


This is a list of the extreme points of Canada, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.



  • Northernmost point

    • land: Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut – 83°06'N, 69°57'W

    • water: North Pole – 90°N

  • Southernmost point: Middle Island, Ontario – 41°41'N, 82°40'W

  • Westernmost point: Yukon-Alaska border – 141°00'W

  • Easternmost point: Cape Spear, Newfoundland – 47°31'N, 52°37'W 47°31′24″N, 52°37′10″W

Canada (mainland)

  • Northernmost point: Murchison Promontory on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut – 71°58'N

  • Southernmost point: Point Pelee, Ontario – 41°58'N

  • Westernmost point: Yukon-Alaska border – 141°00'W

  • Easternmost point: Cape St. Charles, Labrador – 52°13'N, 55°37'W 52°13′03″N, 55°37′15″W

Elevation extremes

  • Lowest point: sea level – 0 m

  • Highest point: Mount Logan – 5,959 m / 19,550 ft



Vancouver to Quebec - the Trans-Canada Cannonball International Run



A new World series of ZEV events: The  Cannonball International series. Entry to these events are free, provided that the Rules are followed (for you own safety). The objective is to demonstrate that transport can be pollution free. The Trans-Canada route crosses much virtual wilderness, making this an event for only the very bravest adventurers.











1st STOP


British Columbia



2nd STOP


British Columbia



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British Columbia



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British Columbia



5th STOP

Lake Louise




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Medicine Hat




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Swift Current




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Hay Lake (TCH)




15th STOP

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17th STOP

Obatanga Provin Pk




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About Canada - links to a lot of information
An American's Guide to Canada - cool site - Canadian search engine and directory
Barren Lands Collection - includes 5000 images of area now known as Nunavut
CN Tower - Toronto's premiere attraction and event destination
Calgary, Alberta - from
Canada - activities from Enchanted Learning Software's Zoom School
Canada - tons of links to Canadian info from galaxy
Canada - Games - more than 3 dozen games and quizzes from Geography World
Canada at Scale - maps of Canadian history
Canada by Train - from the National Library of Canada
Canada Day Ecard's - send online greeting cards absolutely FREE !!!
Canada e-Book - sound, images, tables, graphs and text - Land, People, Economy and The State
Canada International - govt. services, info and resources, for citizens of other countries
Canada Online - from
Canada Postal Code Lookup - with areacode, lat., long., elevation, street name, timezone
Canada: Regional Gross Domestic Product Data - from Demographia
Canada: 20 Top Census Metropolitan Areas: Population from 1951 thru 2001
Canada for Visitors - from
Canada's 360' Web Portal - 360 degree views of many areas of Canada
Canada's Aquatic Environments - 5 different categories of information
Canada's Arctic - Canada's Polar Life and Polar Environments
Canada's Cities - ranked by population - from Demographia
Canada's Wonderland - a Paramount Park
Canada City Population History - Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto & Vancouver
Canada's Demography - population statistics on Canada
Canada's Digital Collections - Geography
Canada's National Forest Inventory - reports, publications, and maps
Canada's Parliament - today in Parliament, more
Canada's Wetlands - Canadian Wetland Classification System and the Wetland Regions of Canada
Canadian Atlas Online - interactive atlas from the Royal Canadian Geographical Society
Canadian Biodiversity Web Site - 8 different categories of information
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation - CBC
Canadian Climate Data - available by city or province
Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971-2000
Canadian Communities Atlas Project - easy-to-use format for schools that can be adapted to any curriculum
Canadian Confederation: The Territorial Evolution of Canada
Canadian Council for Geographic Education - the importance of geographical literacy
Canadian Economy Online - statistics, govt. information, and more
Canadian Encyclopedia Online - Histor!ca
Canadian Forest Service - from Natural Resources Canada
Canadian Geographic Online
Canadian Geographical Names - from Natural Resources Canada
Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN)
Canadian History - from
Canadian Holidays and Celebrations - a thinkquest project
Canadian Ice Service - Environment Canada
Canadian Information By Subject
Canadian Landscapes - collection of photos
Canadian Movies / TV - from
Canadian Music - from
Canadian National Earthquake Hazards Program
Canadian Newspapers Online - a selected list
Canadian Online Newspapers - national and daily
Canadian Politics - from
Canadian Politics on the Web - from Nelson Political Science
Canadian Provinces Outline Maps
Canadian Remembrance Day - send free online greeting card -
Canadian Social Research Links - 138 pages with thousands of links
Canadian Studies - A Guide to the Sources (bibliographic essay)
Canadian Tourism Commission - offers tourist information
Canadian Waters - overview of oceans issues, activities and programs
The Canadian West - the years prior to the 1930s
Canadiana - The Canadian Resource Page
CANOE - Canada news, sports, entertainment, finance and business news
CanPix Gallery - 3,500 pictures and audiovisual resources for Canadian Studies
CanSIS On-line Maps - 7 maps from Canadian Soil Information System
Canuck Abroad - resource for Canadian expats abroad, or if planning travel
Centre for Topographic Information (Ottawa)
Census of Canada: Census of Population, Census of Agriculture
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island - from
Cities in Canada - from OfficialCitySites
CPC - Canada's Political Channel - funded by Canada's cable comapnies
CultureCanada - more than 2 dozen topics with tons of information to explore
CultureQuest World Tour - Canada, US and Mexico - Internet Public Library
Current Events:  Canada - from
Discover Canada's Geoscience Heritage - through text and images
Ecozones and Ecoregions of Canada - click on map for descriptions (Environment Canada)
Ecozones of Canada - 5 categories of information available
Edmonton, Alberta - from
Edmonton's Official Visitors Guide Online - hotels, restaurants, tours, events, and more.
Educational Resources - from the Geological Survey of Canada
Environment Canada's Green Lane - weather and environmental information
Finding Your Way Into The Millennium - maps showing development of Canada
Fredericton, New Brunswick - from
French-Canadian Culture - from
Freshwater Website - from Environment Canada
Geobopological Survey: North America - symbols, quick facts, history, geography
GeoExpress - a guide to Canada's geographic databases: natural resources and environment
Geological Survey of Canada - earth science information
Geoscape Canada - posters and websites describe issues for 15 Canadian communities
Great Lakes Atlas - Environmental Atlas and Resource Book
Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System - lots of information available
Gross Product per Capita - Canadian Provinces and US States - 2001 - from
Gross Domestic Product Data - Regional - 1999 info from Demographia
Government of Canada - overview of key institutions and Acts of the government
Governments on the WWW - Canada. Huge list of government links
Halifax, Nova Scotia - from - A Guide to Women in Canadian History
Historical Atlas of Canada - Online Learning Project
Hudson Bay Project - Ecosystem Studies and Conservation of Coastal Arctic Tundra
Images Canada - over 65,000 images hosted by the National Library of Canada
Immigration Guides - your essential guide on moving to Canada
Info Niagara - Niagara Falls Tourist Information Guide
Interactive Map of Canada - provinces, capitals, and more
Inuit Life In Nunavik - near Ungava Bay in northern Quebec
Investing: Canada - from
Journeys & Transformations: British Columbia Landscapes - requires Macromedia Flash

K-12 Study Canada - wealth of resources for teaching and learning about Canada
Large Canada Urban Areas Population & Density: 2001
LookSmart - Canada
Maps 101 - topographic maps of Canada
Maps of North America - from Internet Geography - people, business, multiculturalism, history and Canadian values
Meteorological Service of Canada - Canada's source for meteorological information
Metropolitan Areas & Core Cities: Canada (1951-2001)
Most Dense Urban Areas & Urban Agglomerations in Canada: 2001
National - network
National Air Photo Library - six million aerial photographs covering all of Canada
Natural Hazards / Canada - map of 9 types of hazards (downloadable)
Natural Resources Canada - Maps
NewsExpress National News - Sympatico
Niagara Falls, Canada - The Niagara Falls, Canada Visitor & Convention Bureau
Niagara Falls Origins - Geology of the creation of the famous landmark - resource of choice for information about Canada
Oh Canada! - this page will attempt to define what it is to be Canadian
Online Resources for Canadian Heritage
Ottawa - network
Ottawa, Ontario - from
Our Climate is Changing
Panoramas - the North American Landscape in Art
Parks Canada - Canada's National Parks
Pathfinders and Passageways: The Exploration of Canada (National Library of Canada)
Passages: A Treasure Trove of North American Exploration (National Library of Canada)
The Peopling of Canada: 1891-1921 (University of Calgary)
The Peopling of Canada: 1946-1976 (University of Calgary)
Places Online: Northern Lands - Association of American Geographers
Politics Watch - Canada's Political Portal
Quebec City, Quebec - from
Quebec Home Page - many links to information about the city of Quebec, Quebec
Sable Island, Nova Scotia: The Green Horse Society
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan - from
Statistics Canada - Canada's national statistical agency profiling Canada
Strategis - Canada's Business and Consumer Site
Teaching and Learning About Canada - tons of information available here!
Terrain Sciences, Geological Survey of Canada - several databases of information offered
Toporama - topographic maps of Canada
Tour Canada From Space - currently 43 tours available
Tour Canada Without Leaving Your Desk - many links to all areas of Canada
Travel Canada - good resource Canada - fun information
US/Canada 49th Parallel Boundary Monument Trip 1994 - Lake of the Woods to the Continental Divide
US / Canadian Parks - from
VIA Rail Canada - attractions, destinations, photos of Canada
Victoria, British Columbia - from
Virtual Field Trips - Canada
Virtual Museum of Canada - Canada's Business and Consumer Site
Virtual Tour - Canada
Volcanoes of Canada - database of more than 200 Canadian volcanic features
Weather Office - from Environment Canada
Welcome to Nunatsiaq News! - 3 different editions of native newspapers
Welcome to Statistics Canada - stats on economy, land, people, government, and more
Well Known Canadians - famous people who happen to be Canadian
Winnipeg, Manitoba - from
Women in Canadian History - links to women who have made a difference



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