The Republic of India, commonly known as India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country, and the most populous liberal democracy in the world. India has a coastline of over seven thousand kilometres, bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east. India borders Pakistan to the west; People's Republic of China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north-east; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.
My father was born in Madras in the 1930s. My grandmother was a ballerina touring the world and a colonial. My father was raised in Bombay and Shimla, and educated at a private school in Kodaikanal in the 1940s. Hence, I have a soft spot for this part of the world. NK
Map of India, the land mass bounded by the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal
Home to the Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism, arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped India's variegated culture. Despite countless invasions over thousands of years, Indian culture and society has been so resilient, that it has either thrown away or completely absorbed any foreign influences, with the social fabric largely remaining unchanged and intact. The present modern democratic nation-state of India emerged in 1947, after it overthrew foreign occupation by widespread use of nonviolent resistance.
With the world's fourth largest economy in purchasing power and the second fastest growing large economy, India has made rapid progress in the last decade, especially in information technology. In addition, its successful space programme, a modern technologically advanced defence forces aided by a nuclear deterrence has led to India's current status as an emerging superpower in international relations. It is also a member of the G4. Although India's standard of living is projected to rise sharply in the next half-century, it currently battles high levels of poverty, persistent malnutrition, and environmental degradation. A multi-lingual, multi-ethnic society, India is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.
India, world location map
For most of its democratic history, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress at the federal level, state politics have been dominated by national parties like Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Communists and some regional parties. Till 1990, Indian National Congress party enjoyed a parliamentary majority barring two brief periods during the 1970s and late 1980s. This rule was interrupted between 1977 to 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the "Emergency" declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The Janata Dal coalition, called the National Front, won elections in 1989, but its government managed to hold on to power for only two years. Between 1996 and 1998, there was a period of political flux with the government being formed first by the Bharatiya Janata Party followed by the United Front coalition. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with smaller regional parties, and became the first non-Congress and coalition government to complete a full five-year term. The 2004 Indian elections saw the Indian National Congress winning the largest number of seats to form a government leading the United Progressive Alliance, supported by left-leaning and other parties opposed to the BJP.
Tiger population world location map
India constitutes the major portion of the Indian subcontinent, which sits atop the Indian Plate and the northwesterly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. India's northern and northeastern states are partially situated in the Himalayan Range. The rest of northern, central, and eastern India consists of the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain. In the west, bordering southeastern Pakistan, lies the Thar Desert. Southern India is almost entirely composed of the peninsular Deccan plateau, which is flanked by two hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
India is home to several major rivers, including the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna. India has three archipelagos — Lakshadweep, which lies off the southwestern coast; the volcanic Andaman and Nicobar Islands island chain to the southeast, and the Sunderbans in the Ganges Delta of West Bengal.
The climate in India varies from tropical in the south to more temperate in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in. This keeps the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert is responsible for attracting the moisture-laden summer monsoon winds that, between June and September, provide most of India's rainfall.
Apatani tribal women in Arunachal Pradesh
With an estimated population of 1.1 billion, India is the world's second most populous country. Almost 70% of Indians reside in rural areas, although in recent decades migration to larger cities has led to the exponential rise in the urban population. India's largest urban agglomerations are Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai , Bangalore and Hyderabad.
India is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. The Indian constitution recognises 23 official languages. Hindi and English are used by the Union Government of India for official purposes, wherein Hindi has a de jure priority. Sanskrit and Tamil enjoy classical language status in India. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.
Although 80.5% of Indians report themselves as Hindus, India's Muslim population is the world's second largest; they constitute 13.4% of the population. Other religious groups include Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Ayyavazhi's, Zoroastrians, Bahá'ís and others.
At the time of India's emergence as a nation-state in 1947, India's literacy rate was 11%. Since then, it has increased to 68.6% (58.25% for females and 78.8% of males). The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate (91%); Bihar has the lowest (47%). The national sex ratio is 944 females per 1,000 males. India's median age is 24.66, and the population growth rate of 1.38% per annum; there are 22.32 births per 1,000 people.
PRIME MINISTER - Narendra G Modi is making it one of his goals tackle the Himalayan problem that faces his country, in squaring up to the pollution of India's Holy River.
SHIPBUILDING APRIL 2013 - Indian ship building set to recover lost glory?
Resilient ship building brings hope of its revival and escalated growth.
India’s tryst with
American history can be traced back to the role Indian ship building played in the creation of the U.S. National Anthem “The Star-Spangled Banner”. The lyrics came from “Defence of Fort McHenry”, a poem written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key when aboard the Minden, a vessel that was built in India. This vessel, Minden, was built of teak by Jamshedji Bomanji Wadia and launched in 1810 from the Duncan Docks in Bombay (now Mumbai), India.
STRATEGY BOARD - 12
HOLY MOTHER GANGA - The River Ganges, for long described as the giver of life, is so polluted that it contains dangerous levels of industrial waste. It would take some serious effort to even begin to get this river back to its natural state, before the intervention of man. In all nature their is a natural balance that as intelligent invaders, we should strive to conserve. River pollution is though not unusual. Many European rivers have been so polluted in the past that just a quick swim in the water meant death. The River Thames was once such waterway in years gone by.
ABID GULZAR - Born in India, Mr Gulzar, once a leather technologist, operates hotels in Eastbourne in England, with his latest acquisition being a grade II* listed pier that is much in need or repair. Could it be that Narendra Modi and Abid Gulzar manage to conserve heritage on opposite sides of the planet, beginning in 2016. Eastbourne Pier suffered a fire that destroyed an iconic part of the Victorian structure, but the previous owners accepted an insurance payout and then sold the historic seaside attraction for an undisclosed sum - without restoring the music pavilion. Abid Gulzar is now faced with mounting rebuild costs with a limited income from his hotels, though he could sell another hotel to live up to his stated intention to: "Make this pier the best in Britain." Possibly, a statement too farm since Clevedon Pier is a grade I listed building and architecturally far superior.
Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It encompasses seven business sectors: communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals. Tata Group was founded in 1868 by Jamsetji Tata as a trading company. It has operations in more than 80 countries across six continents. Tata Group has over 100 operating companies each of them operates independently out of them 32 are publicly
listed. The major Tata companies are Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Teleservices, Titan Industries, Tata Communications and Taj Hotels. The combined market capitalisation of all the 32 listed Tata companies was $89.88 billion as of March 2012. Tata receives more than 58% of its revenue from outside India.
The Cannonball International EV series of road runs is open to all comers provided they hold a valid driving licence and stay within the speed limits. This is an event for people who care about conserving our planet. Cars must be based on production running gear, though modification of drive and battery or fuel cell storage is allowed. Make politicians around the world take notice of by attempting to equal the speeds and endurance of petrol and diesel powered vehicles.
AMRITSAR to NAGERCOIL - TRANS-INDIA CANNONBALL EV RUN SUGGESTED STOPS
Tata Motors Limited (formerly TELCO) is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India and a subsidiary of the Tata Group. Its products include passenger cars, trucks, vans, coaches, buses and military vehicles. It is the world's eighteenth-largest motor vehicle manufacturing company, fourth-largest truck manufacturer and second-largest bus manufacturer by volume.
SIR RATAN TATA - Apart from his businesses, Sir Ratan was a Global Ocean Commissioner during the compiling of a report on the state of the world's oceans in 2014 and 2015.
DEFENCE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION (DRDO)
DRDO is an agency of the Republic of India, responsible for the development of technology for use by the military, headquartered in New Delhi, India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation.
NAVAL RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT
OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY 15 August 2013
- India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has published a report detailing the significant potential for offshore wind energy in the country.
The 52nd edition of the Femina Miss India beauty pageant was held in Yash Raj Films Studios, Mumbai on March 28, 2015. Femina Miss India World 2015, Aditi Arya will represent India at Miss World 2015, Aafreen Vaz was crowned Femina Miss India Supranational 2015 and will represent India at Miss Supranational 2015, Vartika Singh was crowned Femina Miss India Grand 2015 and will represent India at Miss Grand International 2015 and Sushrii Shreya Mishraa of Odisha will represent India at Miss United Continent 2015'. The pageant was telecasted on Colors TV and Zoom (TV channel).
The Taj Mahal in Agra
LINKS and REFERENCE:
A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 froze the positions of Indian and Pakistani held territory. As a consequence, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistani-administered territory.
The Weekly Standard The New Great Game by Daniel Twining
Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama, pg 524. ISBN 81-89004-07-7.
Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC), New Delhi and the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), World Conservation Monitoring Center, Cambridge, UK. 2001. Biodiversity profile for India.
Botanical Survey of India. 1983. Flora and Vegetation of India — An Outline. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah. 24 pp.
Valmik Thapar, Land of the Tiger: A Natural History of the Indian Subcontinent, 1997.
Tritsch, M.E. 2001. Wildlife of India Harper Collins, London. 192 pages. ISBN 0-00-711062-6
K. Praveen Karanth. (2006). Out-of-India Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota
Groombridge, B. (ed). 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. lvi + 286 pp.
"In Pictures – Middle Class, or Upper Class? ". India Together. Civil Society Information Exchange.
"Revenue surge boosts fiscal health". Business Standard.
Census of India 2001, Data on Religion. Census of India.
Languages of India. India image.
"Tamil to be declared classical language". The Hindu. 17 Sept. 2004
Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama, pg 524.
The Colonial Legacy: Myths and Popular Beliefs. Image-India.
Census of India 2001, Data on Literacy. Census of India.
Official entry portal of the Government of India
Official directory of Indian Government websites
CIA World Factbook entry on India
Encyclopædia Britannica entry on India
Satellite images of India from Google Maps
India at the Open Directory Project
Travel to India: holidays, flights, hotels
Kulo Luna $billion dollar whale
a pirate whaler kills a small humpback whale, her giant friend sinks the
pirate ship to avenge the death, but is itself wounded. The pirates put a
price on the whale's head, but an adventurer in an advanced solar powered
boat races to beat the pirates and save the wounded animal.
A heartwarming action adventure: Pirate whalers V Conservationists, with an environmental message and a $Billion dollars riding on the winner. For release as an e-book in 2016 with hopes for a film in 2018 with a provisional budget of £80m including risk share, TBA
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